ADirect Interaction between Gravitation
and Electromagnetism

Occurs
Nowhere in Plasma-Free Vacuum Space

Updated: July 29,
2018

The
Abbreviated Details

ABSTRACT

Microwaves
Found to Deflect only at Minimum Impact Parameter when
Propagated in the Plasma Limb of the Sun

This
work reveals modern astrophysical evidence that clearly counters all that is being published in
the literature and that is currently being taught in academia; namely that which
pertains to the effects of gravitation and electromagnetism
and whether these effects pertain to a direct- or
an indirect interaction between gravitation and
electromagnetism.

Three
mainly important topics are elucidated here:

1.

A
Century of Observations
on Gravitational Lensing

2.

The
Fundamentals
of Gravitational Lensing

3.

The
Flawed
Teaching

Misinterpretation of the Observations

Misrepresentation of the Correct Fundamentals

A
Flawed Tool that does not represent the True
Fundamentals

All
of the bullets listed under 3. have led to the acceptance of
the false teachings, very bad referees and to the
publication of some bad papers and bad
textbooks.

The
Observations

The
Fundamentals

The
Flawed Teaching

Nearly
a century of observations on what is understood to be
gravitational lensing is often supported by a misinterpretation
of the observations coupled with a deviation
from the profound Fundamentals of Mathematical Physics that
correctly represents the Physics of the phenomenon being
observed. The concept of what is understood to be gravitational
lensing is continually worsening by the false teachings,
incorrectly
claiming it to be the true fundamentals.
We present
here a correct understanding of the Astrophysics along
with clear graphical illustrations.

A
clear understanding of the fundamentals of Gravitational lensing
as is predicted by General Relativity is bounced off of the clear
observational evidence and the profound Fundamentals of
Mathematical Physics. It is herewith shown that the predictions
of the Light Bending Rule of General Relativity are clearly
violated in the plasma-free vacuum space, and there is enormous
evidence for it everywhere in empty vacuum space. Clear
observational evidence reveals that a direct interaction between
gravitation and electromagnetism does not take place
anywhere in plasma-free vacuum space.

A
frequently used, poorly designed geometrical lensing tool
commonly referred to as the "Ray Geometry Technique"
is found to lead to gross misinterpretations of the observations
dealing with gravitational lensing galaxies. These
tools are too often
used by researchers who base their findings on what they
incorrectly claim to be gravitational lensing galaxies. Many of
these claims turn out be "False Alarms". These claims
can be easily debunked simple by observing the so-called lensing
galaxies in a different spectra or range of frequencies, i.e.,
in UV or in IR. By doing so, the lensing galaxy will appear to
have totally different features, rendering many of the claims as
"False Alarms".

I.

THE
OBSERVATIONS

Microwave
Deflections at the Solar Plasma Limb

Findings Clearly Supported by Astrophysical Evidence

Microwaves from quasar radio sources and from
artificial satellites are found to deflect only at the plasma limb of the sun,
precisely at 1.752
arcsec and most specifically only at a minimum impact parameter corresponding to
the solar plasma limb. A large number of experiments have already taken place where researchers
have used Mariner Satellites in conjunction with a number of U.S. spacecraft
launched by JPL and NASA Mariner
missions designed to record radio pulsar signals from extra galactic radio pulsar
sources. The emissions from these sources are in the microwave bands. As
already stated, a history of VLBI measurements have recorded the gravitational
deflections at the solar plasma-limb of microwaves, recording the deflections to
be exactly 1.752 arcsec deviating from the initial path of the microwaves emitted from
chosen extra
galactic quasar radio sources. At astronomical distances the rays of the microwaves
from single sources are virtually parallel with one another as can be detected by modern
astronomical instruments as depicted in the Figure above. As the VLBI detectors
involving microwave antennas stationed on Earth based observatories move along
an Earth orbital path, the gravitational deflection of the rays of microwaves are
recorded by researchers conducting these experiments, noting the events of
gravitational deflections at the solar plasma limb. Historically, the rays of
microwaves are observed to deflect only at the angle of 1.752 arcsec, which
corresponds to an impact parameter of exactly one solar radii or a distance of R = 695,500
km from the center of the sun.
Only at this impact parameter will any star of one solar mass and one solar
radius theoretically deflect a ray of microwaves according to the light bending
rule of General Relativity at the angle of 1.752 arcsec. If the light bending
rule of General Relativity were actually valid then a gravitational deflection
of microwaves should also deflect clearly above the plasma limbs of the sun and
stars and be observable also at other impact parameters, namely, at
the impact parameter of 2R to reveal a gravitational deflection of exactly 0.875
arcsec, at 3R to reveal a gravitational deflection of exactly 1/3 of 1.752 arcsec,
etc., etc. Historically, deflections of microwaves are yet to be recorded at
impact parameters greater than that of the solar radius R, permitting the
observation of deflections
at angles less than that of 1.752 arcsec.

References

Lebach,
D. E. et al., "Measurement of the Solar
Gravitational Deflection of
Radio Waves Using Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry
",
Phys.Rev.Lett, 75 (1995), pp. 1439-1442

Counselman, C.C. et al.,
"Solar Gravitational Deflection of
Radio Waves Measured by Very-Long-BaselineInterferometry",
Phys.Rev.Lett. 33 (1974) 1621-1623

Fomalont,
E. B., et al.,
"Measurements of the Solar Gravitational
Deflection of Radio Waves in Agreement with General
Relativity", Phys.Rev.Lett. 36 (1976) 1475-1478

The
Observations versus General Relativity

Finding
Clearly Supported by Astrophysical Evidence

The
Prediction of General Relativity and the Observations Alternately

A
direct interaction between

Gravitation and Electromagnetism

occurs
nowherein plasma-free vacuum space

The
Observations at Sagittarius A*, the Galactic Center

Finding
Clearly Supported by Astrophysical Evidence

Undistorted
time resolved images of stellar objects orbiting about Sagittarius A*
were collected from 1992 to 2006 by Max-Planck-Institut
für extraterrestrische Physik. For
details:http://www.mpe.mpg.de

A
Star orbits a Black Hole as
researchers believe

occurs at
the site of Sagittarius A*

An
Animation

This is an Astrophysical
Experiment that Relativity apparently fails. Recall that Sagettarius A* has been under
intense observations since 1992. Notice, to date there has been not
a shred of evidence for
gravitational lensing.

Observational
Evidence that Rays of Starlight Deflect only

at
the Plasma Limb of the Stars

Finding
Clearly Supported by Astrophysical Evidence

Illustration:
Rays of Starlight deflect at the Stellar Plasma Limb of Stars

Plasma
Focusing from Left to Right

Note:

1) The Plasma Focal Length = 560 AU's for Stars with Mass and Radius of
Sun

2) Mean Distance between Stars in our region is ca 4 Light-Years
>> 560 AU's

For
reasons 1) and 2) Einstein Rings in Star-filled skies are not observed

Starlight deflected
by any sun-like star with solar mass M_{sun} and solar
radius R_{sun} will come to a focus at 560 astronomical
units (AU's). Arbitrary stars with stellar mass M and stellar
radius R will have a plasma focal length of [(R/R_{sun})(M_{sun}/M)]x560
AU's. Hence, a more dens star with a solar radius R_{sun}
will have a shorter plasma focul length < 560 AU's.

Light

From

Distant

Star

sss

observer sees

Einstein
ring image of distant star

Solar Plasma
Focal Length

Theoretically, an
observer positioned at the plasma focal length of the sun should
see the image of a low impact parameter Einstein Ring of a
distant star co-linearly aligned with the lensing sun and the
observer.

Plasma
Focal Length as function of Star Density

Star with Twice
the Density of the Sun
or

2.0
Solar Masses

Star with
Density Equal to that of the Sun
or

1.0
Solar Masses

Star has Half
the Density of the Sun
or

0.5
Solar Masses

Star Radius = R_{sun}

Burning Question:
Where are the Einstein Rings?

Light
rays from any sun-like star of solar mass M_{sun} and solar
radius R_{sun} will come to a focus at a distance of 560
astronomical units, assuming a gravitational deflection occurs at the
plasma limb precisely at the angle of
1.752 arcsec. More Dense Stars will have Shorter Focal Lengths. Less
Dense Stars will have Longer Focal Lengths.

Most
importantly, ALL waves deflected by Stars could never reach the distant
telescopes of an Earth-based observer as the Plasma Focal Lengths are
all far less than the astronomical distances of the Earth-based
Observer.

Assuming
the validity of General Relativity, microwaves and starlight should be
deflected at various impact parameters clearly about the plasma limb of
the sun and stars. At minimum impact parameter, i.e., the distance of
the nearest point on a deflected ray of microwaves within the plasma
limb to center of the sun), the angle of deflection historically has
been recorded to be exactly 1.752 arcsec. Since the thickness of the
plasma limb is a small fraction of the solar radius, then for all
practical purposes the minimum impact parameter may be considered to be R_{sun}.
At higher impact parameters, even in plasma-free vacuum
space, General Relativity predicts reduced gravitational deflections, as
illustrated in the above "alternating" animation title: The
Prediction of General Relativity and the Observations Alternately.

Prediction
of General Relativity

Gravitational
Deflection of Microwaves vs Impact Parameter

Impact
Parameter

Gravitational
Deflection of Microwaves

R_{sun}

1.752
arcsec

Observed

2R_{sun}

1.752/2
= 0.876 arcsec

Not
Observed

3R_{sun}

1.752/3
= 0.584 arcsec

Not
Observed

nR_{sun}

1.752/n
arcsec

Not
Observed

The
image of a low impact parameter Einstein Ring should be visible to any
observer located near, but not beyond the Plasma Focal Length of a
sun-like star, as illustrated above. At higher impact parameters clearly
above the plasma limb of stars, it is clear from solar observations that
microwave deflections do not occur in the plasma-free space clearly
above the plasma limb of stars. For this very
reason the gravitational lensing of a stellar plasma-limb lensing system
would not be visible to observers at astronomical distances far from
a stellar plasma lensing star. Plasma Limb Focusing can be
observed only by placing a remote sensing system in deep space near the Plasma
Focal Length of the Sun or a Star.

The
gravitational deflection of light apparently does not take place
anywhere in plasma-free vacuum space. An impact parameter
of a deflected light ray must take place in plasma-free space as
well as in the plasma limbs of the stars and the sun. As a consequence,
and as supported by enormous observational evidence, the Einstein Rings
can not be seen anywhere in the star-filled skies in our
region of space; clearly a direct violation of the light bending rules of General
Relativity.

Concepts
of Mainstream, Literature and Academia

Not
Observed Anywhere in
Astronomy

Finding
Clearly Supported by Astrophysical Evidence

SOME ANIMATED ARTIST DEPICTIONS SEEN ONLY IN THE
LITERATURE

NOT SEEN ANYWHERE IN ASTRONOMY

A
CLEAR OBSERVATIONAL FACT

Microwaves from
extragalactic radio sources deflect only at the plasma limb
of the sun and precisely at the angle of 1.752 arcsec.
Deflections of these microwaves at higher impact parameters or
at angles less than 1.752 arcsec have never been observed for the
reasons listed above.

II.

THE
FUNDAMENTALS

APPLIED
TO CORRECTLY DESIGNED TOOLS

We
shall now correctly apply the Mathematical Physics
Fundamentals to aCorrectly Designed Lensing Tool. We
shall
now use the correctly formulated Mathematical Physics fundamentals to
graphically represent the gravitational deflection of a light ray by a
point-like gravitating lens according to the Gravitational light bending
rule of General Relativity.

We now focus on
the subject

The
Critical
Impact Parameter

A
Mathematical Illustration

Assume
we have two Observers, (a Far observer on
the left and a Near observer on
the right), the Lens (x)
and the Source (the red *
star) are co-linear and that the Lens (x)
is exactly halfway between the Source *
and the Far Observer.
Note that in Figure B, the axis of symmetry is exactly perpendicular to
the imaginary line joining the Source *
and the Far observer. Also, we may assume that all light rays emitted by
the Source *
belong theoretically to the same family of curves and are
gravitationally bent according to the Light Bending Rule of General
Relativity. We shall examine selectively 3 light rays (the rays that are
labeled with color yellow). We note that only in Figures B and C the
light rays (labeled yellow) will bring optical information to the
telescope of the Observers, namely, the Far and the Near Observers.
Figure A illustrates a selected (yellow) light ray that cannot be
observed by either observer.

Figure
A As illustrated, neither the Far (left) nor the Near
(right) Observer sees the selected yellow light ray. Note the
axis of symmetry leans away from both observers. Since the
selected yellow light rays do not connect with an observer that
is located on the imaginary line connecting the co-linearly
located Source, the Lens (x)
and the Observer receiving the gravitationally deflected
"yellow" light, the axis of symmetry must lean away
from both observers. Moreover,
the gravitationally deflected rays of light that are nearly
parallel with one another or found to be spreading out could
never be seen by the co-linearly located observers. This is a
very important fundamental of optical lensing, not found in the
literature or anywhere in any text book. IMPORTANT NOTE
missed by all too many researchers, professors and teachers of
this subject matter. All light rays under influence of a point-like
gravitational lens would theoretically have an axis of
symmetry associated with that particular light ray. Let
us imagine that if the axis of symmetry were to be
spun around 180 degrees, where the direction of rotation were
along the axis of
symmetry of a
gravitationally bent light ray,
and assume that, for analytical purposes, the bent
light ray is rigid and hypothetically attached to the spinning
axis,the
curved light ray would remain unchanged after having being spun
around. (Hence, The curved light ray is symmetric about
the axis of symmetry.)

Figure
B We note here the axis of symmetry for the
yellow light ray that connects with the Source *
and the Far Observer,
which is
exactly perpendicular to an imaginary line that connects the
Source *
and the Far Observer. The General Relativity Light
Bending Rule may be considered a symmetrical principle simply
because General Relativity does not distinguish between rays of
light, some of which may be approaching, some of which may be
receding the Lens (x).
The gravitational effect acting on the light ray on approach and
on receding is exactly the same. Since the Lens (x)
is exactly midway between the Source on the Observer that
collects the gravitationally bent light ray (yellow curve), the axis of
symmetry has to be perpendicular to the imaginary line that connects the
Source *
and the Far Observer as illustrated above.

Figure
C Likewise, we note here that the axis of symmetry for
the yellow light ray that connects with the Source *
and the Near Observer has
to lean towards the Near Observer simply because the Near Observer,
i.e., the observer being closest to the Lens (x),
will note that the integrated effect of gravitational lensing acting
on the light ray by the Lens (x)
has to be greater, as this time the Lens (x)
is not midway between the observer and the source. The light ray would
be
lensed downward below the imaginary line joining the Source *
and the Near observer
as illustrated in Figure C, if
the light ray were to pass by the Near Observer and continue
downward on a path in free space. Likewise, since this effect is
a 3-Deminsional effect, which wraps around the imaginary line
joining the Source and the Observers, the light ray of the
bottom (yellow) curve would continue upward on a path in free
space as illustrated in Figure C. This would of course assume the validity of the
Light Bending Rule of General Relativity.

Mathematical
Physics Fundamentals

of
Gravitational Deflection Correctly
Applied

Figure
D Einstein Ring Calculation; the General Case (D_{L}
≠ D_{SL})

Here,
the General Case (D_{L}
≠ D_{SL})
does not assume that the lens is midpoint between
the observer and the source, as is illustrated in most textbooks.
Note that the simplified special case presented
inmost textbooks, assumes that
D_{L}
= D_{SL}
, where D_{L}
is the distance between the observer and the lens and D_{SL}
is the distance between the light source and the lens, placing the lens
exactly halfway between the light source and the observer. This essential Mathematical Physics principle
on lensing, is often totally missed by researchers attempting to deal with
this topic. From symmetry requirement, the gravitational effect on a light ray
upon approach to a gravitating mass positioned exactly at the midpoint of a
line joining the source and the observer, must
equal that of the gravitational effect on the light ray upon receding the
gravitating mass, whereby

and thus,

and
consequently the total lensing due to the total
integrated effect of gravitational deflection acting on the light ray is

due
to the false teaching and/or misunderstanding of the fundamentals

Ray
Geometry Technique for Gravitational Lensing

Researchers utilizing
this tool seek alternative simplifications for the application of the
cumbersome light bending rule of General Relative and may or may not be
thoroughly familiar with the basic principle of the light bending rule of General
Relativity given by Equation (1),

(1)

where is the impact parameter. In the case of microwave
deflections at the solar plasma limb, this work shows that the
gravitational deflections of microwaves occur only at the solar plasma
limb due to minimum-energy or
least-time conservations of the path of microwaves propagating in the
solar plasma limb. An equating of the impact parameter and
the solar radius

(2)

by the mainstream
researchers dealing with this subject can only be either an innocent
oversight or a deliberate deception.

Equation (1) can be
derived using the minimum-energy or
least-time conservations of energy considerations (for details and
Reference see: /details09.htm)
and not simply by the
use of simple, clumsy schemes of geometry such as the Ray Geometry
Technique for Gravitational Lensing. The correct geometrical picture as well
as the correct Mathematical Physics of the conservation of energy, the
Physics of the minimum energy path or the minimum time path and the principle of
reciprocity must all be considered for any correct
interpretation of the observed astrophysical events dealing with
gravitational lensing.

From the above Figure
depicting the so-called "Ray Geometry Technique for
estimating Gravitational Lensing",
the derived angle of Equation (3)

(3)

for estimating the gravitational deflection can not be an exact
equivalence to that of General Relativity, i.e., that of Equation (1).

It is readily see that,
as the source approaches the vicinity of the gravitational lens, the adjustable parameter D_{ds}
, the distance between the source and the lens, gets smaller or
approaches zero. D_{s}_{
}= 26,000 light years, where D_{s}_{
}is the distance between the
observer and the source. Any lensing effect estimated by this
geometrical "ray" scheme can only be a very poor approximation
to that of General Relativity, where the derived angle given by Equation
(3) will approach a very small value, i.e., zero as D_{ds}
approaches zero. This suggests incorrectly that the lensing effect
would be minimized for sources located in proximity to or near to the
gravitating mass or to the lens. Researchers not familiar with the
Physics of gravitational lensing and the profound fundamentals thereof
should not rely on such tools as the so-called "Ray Geometry
Technique" used for the purpose of estimating Gravitational
Lensing without taking the painstaking effort to apply the Profound
Fundamentals of the phenomenon under observation.

FUNDAMENTALS
and FACTS the Academia,
the Literature and the
Referees are getting
completely WRONG

Dr.
Albert Einstein's own words:

"Wenn
die Lichtgeschwindigkeit auch nur ein bißchen von der Geschwindigkeit
der Lichtquelle abhängig ist, dann ist meine ganze Relativitätstheorie
und Gravitationstheorie falsch."
{Zitat A. Einsteins von einem Brief an Erwin Finley-Freundlich: August
1913}

"If
the velocity of light is only a tiny bit dependent on the velocity of
the light source, then my whole theory of Relativity and Gravitation is
false."
{Quotation of A. Einstein from a letter to Erwin Finley-Freundlich:
August 1913}.

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